Rapid urban growth has not benefited all residents equally, leading to an “urban divide”. The poor are left to bear most of the burdens and shortcomings particularly in terms of access to services. Despite its contribution to economic development, urbanization has led to an increasing incidence of urban poverty and inequity, deteriorating quality of the urban environment, unplanned growth of peri-urban areas and deficiencies in access to basic urban services, including water supply and sanitation, urban shelter, waste management, energy, transport and health.
Urban poverty is mired in crime and violence, congestion, and exposure to pollution,and often a lack of familiar social and community networks. Rapid urban growth has not benefited all residents equally, leading to an “urban divide”. A typical slum household suffers from several deprivations including lack of access to improved water and sanitation, insecure land tenure, unreliable power supply and intermittent water availability, insufficient treatment of wastewater, poor drainage and flooding, and uncollected garbage.