Increasing Transparency in Local Governments: Implementation and Evaluation of Citizen Budgets in Uganda, Kenya, and Zimbabwe

Regional focus: Eastern Africa

Time: October 2023 – June 2024

This action research project follows up on previous ICLD research by supporting local governments to implement a citizens budget and adapt the associated Toolbox to African experiences.


This research project investigates the implementation and impact of Citizen’s Budgets at the local level in selected countries. It aims to understand the elements that compose these budgets, the impact they have on the transparency of local government budget processes, and the degree of empowerment they confer, especially to marginalized groups. The study also assesses whether the level of budget literacy in these countries acts as a limiting factor to the effective use of Citizen’s Budgets and explores the most effective digital technology practices for implementing this tool. The methodologies include desk analysis, surveys, interviews, and capacity-building workshops with local government administrations and local communities. The outcomes of this research promise to enhance transparency, accountability, citizen engagement, and trust in local government, thereby strengthening local democracy. This project underscores the significance of Citizen’s Budgets as crucial instruments for fostering participative governance and enhancing fiscal literacy.


Viktor Mitevski, Executive Director, ZMAI (Association of Research and Analysis)

Dragan Tevdovski, Professor, University St Cyril and Methodious University Skopje

Elena Trpkovska, Economist, The Social Services Improvement Project in the Republic of North Macedonia (SSIP)

Related publications:

Inclusive leadership and governance
Globala mål
17 - Genomförande och globalt partnerskap5 - Jämställdhet
Digitalisation and e-governance