Kategori: Publikation

Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR)

This toolbox outlines three methods for co-creating solutions for climate action and sustainable development: photovoice, community asset mapping and participatory video. It is especially relevant to bridge the gap between policy, academia and communities.

This toolbox was developed in connection with the Autumn School in CBPR, organized for researchers and local government officials from Tanzania, Kenya and Sweden in Dar es Salaam in 2022, by the authors of this toolbox.

Typ av publikation
Toolbox
Projektområde
Culture, leisure, sport and/or tourism
Globala mål
17 - Genomförande och globalt partnerskap
Etiketter
Action research, co-creation, participation, Participatory methods,

Let’s get together and make change: Towards a Child-Focused Cities Analytical Framework

Children live in cities and local communities, implying that they have proximity to the local government rather than the national government. The interaction of children with their governments happens at the local level. And, children experience the realisation of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in the local sphere of government. Yet, children are relegated to the margins of local governance and implementation of SDGs and are not given the space and voice to shape how their cities should be or look like. In this project, we investigated through literature review and case studies in ICLD partnering municipalities (Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe and Livingstone, Zambia) to gain critical insights and a context-based understanding to local governments to enhance informed and child-focused decision-making around local governance and SDGs implementation.

Note: This publication is the result of a Local Democracy Lab and the Local Democracy Academy, both held in 2022. The study was conducted with an Impact research grant: small-scale, action-oriented projects conducted in close collaboration with local governments.

Typ av publikation
Working Papers
Projektområde
Culture, leisure, sport and/or tourismEducationUrban planning
Globala mål
17 - Genomförande och globalt partnerskap
Tema
Child rights and youth participation
Etiketter
Agenda2023, child rights, child-friendly cities, transdisciplinary, Urban planning, youth inclusion,

Voluntary Local Review – Kibaha Town Council, Tanzania

This Voluntary Local Review (VLR) aims at understanding how well the SDGs have been localized and implemented in Kibaha Town Council (KTC), Tanzania. The process employed Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) to represent local voices in a participatory and inclusive manner. The results show that localization of SDGs has helped the government and citizens to foster their cooperation in solving challenges encountered during implementation of SDGs. Citizens of KTC help the council in implementing SDGs through mobilizing local resources, capacity building; local monitoring, and participating in grassroots initiatives on SDG-related activities. Localization of SDGs was constrained by challenges such as financial limitation and lack of meaningful participation from key stakeholders. The review concludes by emphasizing the importance local monitoring of SDGs in promoting the co-production of knowledge through citizen’s participation in decision-making.

Typ av publikation
Working Papers
Projektområde
Inclusive leadership and governance
Globala mål
10 - Minskad ojämlikhet11 - Hållbara städer och samhällen16 - Fredliga och inkluderande samhällen17 - Genomförande och globalt partnerskap5 - Jämställdhet
Tema
Participatory democracy, citizen dialogues and budgeting
Internationell partner
Kibaha Town Council
Etiketter
Agenda2023, CBPR, LocalisingSDGs, VLR,

Voluntary Local Review – Emboreet village, Manyara, Tanzania

The United Nations Agenda 2030 contains 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) with 169 targets to address global social, environmental, and economic challenges by 2030, of which many must be implemented at the local level. Voluntary Local Reviews (VLR) have gained prominence as a means for local and regional governments to assess SDG progress and remaining challenges. Citizen and community engagement in SDG implementation have been recognized as instrumental in achieving the goals and targets. This report presents the findings of a Voluntary Local Review conducted in Emboreet village, Tanzania. The objective was to assess the localization of Agenda 2030, explore the involvement of citizens and other social actors in SDG implementation, and understand their perceptions of the efforts made in achieving the SDGs. The research employed a Community Participatory Action Research methodology to ensure active community participation and collaboration. It reviews thirteen SDGs as a combination of those adapted by the Emboreet village from the Tanzania Vision 2025 and priorities of community stakeholders.

Typ av publikation
Working Papers
Projektområde
Inclusive leadership and governance
Globala mål
1 - Ingen fattigdom10 - Minskad ojämlikhet11 - Hållbara städer och samhällen13 - Bekämpa klimatförändringarna16 - Fredliga och inkluderande samhällen17 - Genomförande och globalt partnerskap2 - Ingen hunger3 - God hälsa och välbefinnande4 - God utbildning för alla5 - Jämställdhet6 - Rent vatten och sanitet för alla7 - Hållbar energi för alla9 - Hållbar industri, innovationer och infrastruktur
Tema
Participatory democracy, citizen dialogues and budgeting
Internationell partner
Emboreet, Simanjiro
Etiketter
Agenda2030, Voluntary Local Review,

Voluntary Local Review – City of Bijeljina, Bosnia and Herzegovina

This report looks into the localisation of SDGs in the City of Bijeljina, which is an SDG pioneer in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It reviews three SDGs – SDG5 (gender equality), SDG10 (inclusion), and SDG17 (partnerships towards goals) – through the lens of Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) which is based on an immersion of researchers into the communities to seek active involvement of participants. The City of Bijeljina being a very heterogeneous community, this research has sought to address asymmetries in each of the three prioritised SDGs by looking into the institutional mechanisms for localisation of SDGs, specifically mechanisms and approaches for engagement of civil society, citizens and local communities in that process. It identifies some level of citizen engagement in setting priorities, marking the planning stage of the localization of SDG as participatory. However, the implementation and monitoring of results still lacks strong community ownership, as integration of SDGs into local processes still rests with the formal structures of the City administration. As such, the report concludes that the City of Bijeljina has been very successful in the initial stages of localisation of SDGs through systematic engagement of civil society in different aspects of designing and implementing the local Development Strategy, but recommends the City to enable and promote participatory monitoring that would more closely reflect citizens’ views on the process of localising SDGs.

Note: This is one of three Voluntary Local Reviews, developed using participatory methods, supported by ICLD in 2023. Lessons learned from this experimental approach to VLRs – how it builds democratic capacity and how it can get even better – are gathered in a forthcoming research report. Stay tuned!

Typ av publikation
Working Papers
Projektområde
Inclusive leadership and governanceLocal economic development, innovation and livelihoods
Globala mål
10 - Minskad ojämlikhet17 - Genomförande och globalt partnerskap5 - Jämställdhet
Tema
Participatory democracy, citizen dialogues and budgeting
Etiketter
Agenda2030, Localising SDGs, SDG,

The Plastic Bag Ban in Kenya: A study on consumer perceptions and attitudes following the plastic bag ban in Nairobi, Kenya

In 2017, Kenya’s government banned plastic bags, to reduce plastic waste and protect the environment. Today Kenya has one of the strictest plastic bag bans in the world.

This study examines the perception of the plastic bag ban by different income classes in Nairobi, as well as what factors influence people’s support for the plastic bag ban in Nairobi.

The result indicates that the majority of respondents expressed strong support for the plastic bag ban, citing environmental concerns and the need for sustainable practices. However, a small segment of the population remained skeptical about the effectiveness and feasibility of the ban. The opinions of respondents that the ban was not strict enough is an indicator that the government still needs to do more and work towards a better environment. Factors such as age and education level emerged as influential factors in shaping individuals’ perceptions. However, the relationship was not enough to influence opinion on supporting the ban.

Consumer behaviors and awareness about environmental factors were mainly significant in influencing the opinions of residents in supporting the ban. This suggests that people that have reduced their plastic bag usage and are environmentally conscious, are more likely to support the plastic bag ban.

In conclusion, the findings from this study contribute to the public’s opinion on this strict plastic bag ban, in Kenya. The results emphasize the importance of promoting awareness and education to ensure the successful implementation and acceptance of the plastic bag ban. These findings can inform policymakers, environmental organizations, and other stakeholders in designing effective strategies to address plastic waste and promote sustainable practices.

Typ av publikation
Master Thesis
Projektområde
Environment/Climate change
Globala mål
12 - Hållbar konsumtion och produktion13 - Bekämpa klimatförändringarna
Etiketter
behavioral change, fieldwork grant, Kenya, plastic bag ban,

Local government for inclusion: centering non-exclusionary policies in a decentralized setting

This research in four municipalities and districts in West Java, Indonesia finds that marginalization, discrimination, and violence against religious and gender minorities is often justified by the presence of exclusionary morality-based policies. This brief explains under what conditions such policies are more likely to be adopted by the local government. This brief also recommends several key measures for the government and civil society organizations to center non-exclusionary policy-making to mainstream social inclusion in local governance.

Download the Policy Brief under files below. Note: see also the corresponding Research Report and this video, based on the policy brief.

Typ av publikation
Policy Briefs
Projektområde
Inclusive leadership and governance
Globala mål
10 - Minskad ojämlikhet
Tema
Human Rights
Etiketter
exclusionary policies, Forskning, inclusion, Morality policies, non-discrimination,

It Takes Two to Tango: Perceptions and motivations towards campaign clientelism in Zambia

Various studies on clientelism usually start from a common puzzle: Why is campaign clientelism widely practised by politicians even when they have no means of ensuring reciprocity from the voters? Similarly, why is campaign clientelism widespread amongst voters despite its numerous negative consequences on societies, democracy, and development? These puzzles have motivated my research, where I attempt to understand the perceptions and motivations of politicians and voters towards campaign clientelism in Zambia.

To address the research question, two forms of data collection methods were utilised, in-depth interviews with politicians at the local level and a survey of voters in densely populated areas (Lusaka and Kitwe). Theoretically, the thesis draws on the informational theory of campaign clientelism to understand the perceptions and motivations of politicians, as well as insights from social psychology to understand the voters’ legitimation beliefs using the systems justification theory.

Results showed that politicians have various perceptions of clientelism, from believing clientelism is an unsigned agreement between politicians and voters as well as an act of moral responsibility. Politicians also had various motives for engaging in clientelism; careerism, or the need to impress party bosses with their organisational ability; and signalling electoral viability to clientelist-seeking voters and donors. On the other hand, most of the voters highlighted their need to maintain the status quo by stating their willingness to engage in future campaign clientelism. Voters also acknowledged that campaign clientelism was not beneficial to their communities, but they were not willing to support any future laws that would prohibit politicians and voters to engage in campaign clientelism.

Typ av publikation
Master Thesis
Projektområde
Inclusive leadership and governance
Globala mål
16 - Fredliga och inkluderande samhällen
Tema
Participatory democracy, citizen dialogues and budgeting
Etiketter
clientelism, fieldwork grant, zambia,

Towards Inclusive WASH Policy-Making: A case study of exploring barriers to adopting gender responsive budgeting (GRB) in the water and sanitation sector in Cape Town

This study investigates different potential barriers to adopting a Gender Responsive Budgeting (GRB) approach that aims to address gender inequalities in the WASH sector. The study explores the perspectives of civil servants, local politicians, and civil society representatives through semi-structured interviews, shedding light on the challenges faced in intensifying gender equality perspectives at the local government level in Cape Town, South Africa. Specifically, the study highlights the impact of lack of transparency, limited multistakeholder cooperation, and restricted gender equality awareness as key obstacles.

Drawing on Feminist Democratic Theory (FDT), and Postcolonial Feminism, the study reveals that these challenges affect the entire policy cycle. Notably, the research uncovers new complexities in relation to transparency, multistakeholder cooperation, and gender equality awareness across the input, throughput, and output stages of the policy process. While previous GRB research has predominantly focused on theoretical aspects and the policy process’s output stage, this study delves into the input and throughput stages as well.

By examining these stages, the study exposes underlying norms related to gender, race, and socioeconomic status as well as structures related to culture and history, thereby adding layers of complexity to the identified challenges. By comprehending and analyzing these underlying structures and norms, policymakers, politicians, and civil society can effectively confront the barriers, thus increasing the prospects for adopting an inclusive GRB approach.

Typ av publikation
Master Thesis
Projektområde
Inclusive leadership and governance
Globala mål
5 - Jämställdhet6 - Rent vatten och sanitet för alla
Tema
Gender Equality
Etiketter
fieldwork grant, Gender equality, gender responsive budgeting, South Africa, water and sanitation,

The Plight of the Pangolin: Key patterns enabling the illegal wildlife trade of pangolins in Namibia – a multi-perspective case study

The pangolin is the most trafficked mammal on earth and is believed to be on the brink of extinction. However, in many affected countries including Namibia, research and conservation efforts do not match their endangered status. Despite strict wildlife legislations, the level of illegal wildlife trade remains high, especially impacting Namibia’s rural communities. Thus, the aim of this thesis is to disclose the key enabling factors and underlying power relations fueling this trend in Namibia and, consequently, derive effective conservation and policy implications.

The approach of this thesis is a multi-perspective case study which creates a holistic view of this understudied topic. As a method, we chose six key groups of stakeholders to participate in semistructured interviews. The obtained data was further structured and analyzed through a socialecological systems approach paired with a political ecology lens.

We derived key enabling factors such as the lack of overall cooperation and knowledge exchange between all subsystems as well as the exclusion of important stakeholders. The pangolin, being a non-charismatic species, also suffers insufficient funding, due to its lack of value for the tourism and hunting industries. Further, entrenched asymmetric power relations were found to be one of the root causes. In this defunct system, the marginalization of rural communities creates a vicious cycle of insecurity and poverty resulting in illegal activities such as pangolin poaching.

Typ av publikation
Master Thesis
Projektområde
Environment/Climate change
Globala mål
15 - Ekosystem och biologisk mångfald
Tema
Participatory democracy, citizen dialogues and budgeting
Etiketter
conservation, fieldwork grant, Namibia, pangolin, wildlife,