Samarbetsland: Zambia

Let’s get together and make change: Towards a Child-Focused Cities Analytical Framework

Children live in cities and local communities, implying that they have proximity to the local government rather than the national government. The interaction of children with their governments happens at the local level. And, children experience the realisation of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in the local sphere of government. Yet, children are relegated to the margins of local governance and implementation of SDGs and are not given the space and voice to shape how their cities should be or look like. In this project, we investigated through literature review and case studies in ICLD partnering municipalities (Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe and Livingstone, Zambia) to gain critical insights and a context-based understanding to local governments to enhance informed and child-focused decision-making around local governance and SDGs implementation.

Note: This publication is the result of a Local Democracy Lab and the Local Democracy Academy, both held in 2022. The study was conducted with an Impact research grant: small-scale, action-oriented projects conducted in close collaboration with local governments.

Typ av publikation
Working Papers
Projektområde
Culture, leisure, sport and/or tourismEducationUrban planning
Globala mål
17 - Genomförande och globalt partnerskap
Tema
Child rights and youth participation
Etiketter
Agenda2023, child rights, child-friendly cities, transdisciplinary, Urban planning, youth inclusion,

It Takes Two to Tango: Perceptions and motivations towards campaign clientelism in Zambia

Various studies on clientelism usually start from a common puzzle: Why is campaign clientelism widely practised by politicians even when they have no means of ensuring reciprocity from the voters? Similarly, why is campaign clientelism widespread amongst voters despite its numerous negative consequences on societies, democracy, and development? These puzzles have motivated my research, where I attempt to understand the perceptions and motivations of politicians and voters towards campaign clientelism in Zambia.

To address the research question, two forms of data collection methods were utilised, in-depth interviews with politicians at the local level and a survey of voters in densely populated areas (Lusaka and Kitwe). Theoretically, the thesis draws on the informational theory of campaign clientelism to understand the perceptions and motivations of politicians, as well as insights from social psychology to understand the voters’ legitimation beliefs using the systems justification theory.

Results showed that politicians have various perceptions of clientelism, from believing clientelism is an unsigned agreement between politicians and voters as well as an act of moral responsibility. Politicians also had various motives for engaging in clientelism; careerism, or the need to impress party bosses with their organisational ability; and signalling electoral viability to clientelist-seeking voters and donors. On the other hand, most of the voters highlighted their need to maintain the status quo by stating their willingness to engage in future campaign clientelism. Voters also acknowledged that campaign clientelism was not beneficial to their communities, but they were not willing to support any future laws that would prohibit politicians and voters to engage in campaign clientelism.

Typ av publikation
Master Thesis
Projektområde
Inclusive leadership and governance
Globala mål
16 - Fredliga och inkluderande samhällen
Tema
Participatory democracy, citizen dialogues and budgeting
Etiketter
clientelism, fieldwork grant, zambia,

Child-Focused Cities Analytical Framework

This research project, aiming to develop an analytical tool to address the Sustainable Development Goals from a child rights perspective, is divided into multiple steps. Phase two, conducted in 2023-2024 is described first while phase 1, which served to build the conceptual groundwork for the analytical framework, is described after.

Phase 2 – Child-Focused Cities [CFC] for the Sustainable Futures Network

Regional focus: Eastern Africa / Southern Africa / Europe / Latin America The Sustainable Futures Network

Time: July 2023 – July 2024

Abstract:

Child-Focused Cities (CFC) brings together a group of engaged researchers epistemologically curious about the inclusion of children and youth in local democracy. The group revolves around questions of why, how, where, and under what circumstances children and young people are recognised as political subjects and crucial role-players in shaping sustainable futures.

The project will facilitate cross-sectoral exchange between local decision-makers, researchers, and practitioners by embracing the format of Research Circles. Through local partnerships with reputable professional organizations specializing in working with children and young individuals, the research will enable creative interpretation of the CFC initial concept, thus illuminating multiple geographical and cultural registers around childhood, and providing the indispensable link between local politics and research. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop a toolbox as a collection of practical instruments and protocols that will be essential for advancing the CFC agenda within the Sustainable Futures Network.

Research team

  1. Jua Cilliers [Australia], School of Built Environment, University of Technology Sydney
  2. Paula Barros [Brazil], Escola de Arquitetura Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
  3. Lynne Cairns [Scotland], Centre for Research into Violence and Abuse (CRiVA), University of Durham
  4. Caroline Brown [Scotland],The Urban Institute, School of Energy, Geosciences, Infrastructure and Society, Heriot-Watt University
  5. Predrag Milic [Serbia/Austria], Interdisciplinary Centre for Urban Culture and Public Space, TU Wien / Faculty of Architecture and Planning Austria
  6. Rongedzayi Fambasayi [South Africa], Play Africa Group NPC, Children’s Museum / Law and Development Research, North-West University
  7. Rejoice Katsidzira, [Zimbabwe] Center for Human Rights, University of Pretoria

Phase 1 – Let’s get together and make change: Towards The Child-Focused Cities Analytical Framework

Regional focus: East Africa, global

Time: October-December 2022

This study is conducted with an Impact Research Grant – stipends for projects designed to facilitate solutions to a local government’s expressed needs. The projects build on Local Democracy Labs, where local governments discuss a current issue with expert researchers.

Summary

This research ultimately aims to create a new toolkit –a relational object – that reframes the current Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) from children’s perspectives in their respective everyday-life environments. Such a tool aims at the paradigmatic shift of the child-friendly city approaches by claiming that “friendly is not enough”! Conceptualised as the Child-Focused City Analytical Framework, the toolkit should offer guidance for analysis andaction to local governments, municipalities, and professionals within and beyond the ICLD network. In short, this project will enable a team of international scholars to revisit, contextualise, and stress-test the concept of the CFCAF, developed during the LDA2022. In this “stage zero” phase, contextualising the CFCAF to the needs of partnering local governments and professionals serves to stress-test the toolkit, jointly draw conclusions and prepare for its further development.

With a participatory approach and co-creation of results, the project encounters municipalities in their respective realities and engage in a constructive dialogue around child and youth inclusion. As a group of international scholars, the researchers will not do “research”, but “praxis: reflection and action upon the world in order to transform it” (Freire 2005: 51).

Municipal partners for this project are Livingstone and Victoria Falls, Zambia, while multiple municipalities participate as observers.

Projektområde
Inclusive leadership and governance
Globala mål
11 - Hållbara städer och samhällen17 - Genomförande och globalt partnerskap
Tema
Child rights and youth participationHuman RightsParticipatory democracy, citizen dialogues and budgeting

Håbo, Livingstone and Victoria Falls – Zambia/Zimbabwe

Youth Rights Connect

Håbo, Livingstone and Victoria Falls municipalities are carrying out an Inception to have the opportunity to jointly develop a project plan closely linked to human right topics youth rights to participation, education and well being and Agenda 2030, Goals:
1 No Poverty,
3 Good health and Well-being,
4 Quality Education and
5 Gender Equality.

The partners have established a mutual challenge regarding empowerment of young people in accessing civil, political, social, economic and cultural rights in their municipalities and would like to explore further together what their organisations, as duty bearers, can to ensure that the rights of youths are better protected, respected and promoted within their municipality.

Projektområde
Inclusive leadership and governance
Globala mål
3 - God hälsa och välbefinnande4 - God utbildning för alla5 - Jämställdhet
Tema
Child rights and youth participationHuman Rights
Svensk partner
Håbo kommun
Internationell partner
LivingstoneVictoria Falls

Haparanda and Solwezi – Zambia

Empowering of women and youth in local democracy and development work

Haparanda and Solwezi are carrying out this Inception to have the opportunity to jointly develop a project plan closely linked to issues of inequality and empowering of women. The partners intend to find strengthening approaches to improve developmental inequalities through equitable service delivery without leaving anyone behind.

Solwezi is an emerging Town with approximately 164,519 people in population. The district hosts one of Africa’s biggest copper mining operations known as Kansanshi Mines. The development of the mine started attracting many people into Solwezi to look for jobs. New arrivals live in informal settlements on customary owned land, amidst mining activities. The mushrooming of unplanned settlements in Solwezi has not only contributed to the lack of access to water and sanitation but has also brought about other problems which are interlinked such as  gender inequality because in the peri urban and rural areas Women and girls have the primary responsibility for management of household water supply, sanitation and health. Often, fulfilling these roles excludes them from any other occupation or participation in education. 

Projektområde
Inclusive leadership and governance
Globala mål
10 - Minskad ojämlikhet5 - Jämställdhet6 - Rent vatten och sanitet för alla
Tema
Human Rights
Svensk partner
Haparanda stad
Internationell partner
Solwesi Municipal Council

Programme structure

Inclusive Local Governance

The training consists of four compulsory workshops, of which all four are full time scheduled trainings. Periods between workshops are homebased. The total duration of the programme is 18 months.

When:
The inception workshop will be held during week 10, March, 2022 in Johannesburg, South Africa.
The Sweden Phase workshop will take place during week 35, in the end of August and beginning of September 2022 in Sweden.
The follow-up workshop will take place in the end of January, 2023. (the venue to be decided)
The final workshop will take place in mid May, 2023. (the venue to be decided)
Dissemination/evaluation activity is planned for the late autumn, 2023 or January 2024. (the venue to be decided)

Where:
All workshops except the Sweden Phase workshop will be held in the participating countries. The Sweden Phase workshop will be carried out in Sweden.

Phase 1
Inception workshop
(in one of the participating countries; 5 days inclusive travels)

Johannesburg, South Africa

After confirmed selection, the participants will be contacted by a programme manager at ICLD and invited to the inception workshop. The inception workshop aims to prepare the participants for the programme, while stimulating cooperation between participants, their respective teams and relevant networks. It also provides an opportunity to explore synergies between the planned Dilemmas outlines and scope for collaborations. Based on the Dilemmas outlines project design tools will be used to develop project plans. Each team will be given a mentor/national expert from their respective country who will be following the process closely and also conducting several meetings with their teams. The tuition during the inception workshop consists of group discussions and lectures with a combination of Swedish and/or international experts from the region.

Work with the Dilemma Project (6 months, in home country)

Back in their respective local communities the participants will continue to develop their dilemma projects. Participants will actively use web-based tools for interaction with facilitators and other participants. The participant will have meetings with their mentors.

Phase 2
Sweden Phase workshop (The lenght of the workshop to be decided)

During the Swedish Phase workshop, participants will be in Sweden and will be exposed to Sweden’s and ICLDs advanced knowledge and experience of HR, participatory democracy, research etc. Tuition consists of interactive lectures and group discussions with Swedish and international experts combined with study visits, group work and discussions. Time is also allocated for review of the dilemma projects in preparations for implementation through work in small groups led by an ICLD facilitators and mentors. Social and networking activities will be arranged to make the Swedish part of the programma a positive experience.

Continuation of the work with the Dilemma Project (6 months, in home country)

Back in their respective local communities the participants will continue to work on their Dilemma Project. Participants will actively use web-based tools for interaction with facilitators and other participants. The participant will have meetings with their mentors.

Phase 3
Follow-up workshop (in one of the participating countries, 5 days inclusive travels)

A follow-up workshop seminar will be arranged in one of the participating countries, for the participants to present the progress of their Dilemma Projects. The workshop provides an opportunity for peer review and a deeper look into the Dilemma Projects. The programme of the follow-up worskhop also includes study visits and lectures provided by the ICLD and other relevant lecturers.

Phase 4
Final workshop
(in one of the participating countries; 5 days inclusive travels)

More exact location to be decided.

A final workshop seminar will be arranged in one of the participating countries, for the participants to present their Dilemma Project results. The workshop provides an opportunity for peer review and evaluation of the Dilemma Projects. The programme also includes study visits and lectures provided by the ICLD and relevant lecturers. This workshop marks the formal end of the programme.

Dissemination/Evaluation event

This event will be organised in one of the participating countries in order to spread the project outcomes; attract new municipalities; promote expertise in HR-issues and to highlight the connections between research and HR etc.

Team Visits

All teams are visited by their mentors and some teams will also be visited by ICLD programme management team. An assignment linked to the implementation of a participatory democracy method will be given to the team to work on and report back on before the last training session.The plan is also to implement peer to peer visits. (cross countries: south-south/north-south.

Learning processes

The programme employs a mixture of pedagogical methods such as lectures, group work, forum discussions, study visits and facilitated support by the assigned mentors. Support for planning, implementation and evaluation of the Dilemma projects is mainstreamed throughout the whole programme. The number of participants is limited to 25 in order to ensure a close working relationship between participants, ICLD-staff, mentors and lecturers.

Management and staff

All four phases of the International Training Programme are carried out under the support and management of the ICLD. In addition, the programme is supported locally by professional mentors/national experts being selected by the ICLD.

Projektområde
Inclusive leadership and governance
Tema
Human Rights

Admission requirements

Invited countries

Botswana, South Africa, Zambia

Target group

The programme welcomes applications from teams from the eight local governments in southern Africa within Human Rights-network consisting of at a minimum: one elected politician; one local government official and one representative of a civil society organization. Only candidates nominated by the appropriate organization (municipality, city, region) and in accordance with national rules will be considered. To achieve a good gender balance, applications from qualified women and younger persons are especially welcome. Candidates who have previously participated in an ICLD-training programme financed by Sida cannot apply for this programme.

Language requirements

The training programme will be organised and conducted in English. Proficiency in English shall be indicated in the Application form.

Health requirements

Considering the training programme consists of international travels and work away from home in a new environment, good health and ability to work without physical/health restrictions if required. It is therefore recommended that candidates undergo a medical examination before filling in the Medical Statement in the Application form.

Other requirements

Nominations are assessed on individual and organisational merits. 25 participants will be selected to the programme taking into account that the participants bring diversity to the group through their various backgrounds and professional qualifications.

The programme welcomes applications from teams from the eight HR-municipalities from Botswana, Zambia, South Africa consisting of at least one local government official, one elected politician and one representative of a civil society organization at a minimum.

The outline of the dilemma, together with the commitment of the municipality to support active involvement of the participant in the implementation of the project will be of crucial importance in the selection of participants. Once selected, the participants are required to attend all scheduled parts of the programme and a Letter of Commitment is to be signed by the nominating organisation before the start of the programme. Due to the nature of the programme, family members are not allowed to accompany participants to the programme.

Costs

All training costs pertaining to lectures, literature, documentation, study tours and certain social activities as well as accommodation and food will also be covered by the organiser. All international travel costs related to the programme will be covered by the programme organiser. Costs for personal expenses are not included and are the responsibility of the participant or his/her organisation.

VISA

Participants are responsible for obtaining all relevant visas during all scheduled parts of the programme. The costs for obtaining visas are to be borne by the participant.

Insurance

All participants are covered under a group insurance while on scheduled parts of the programme. Medical and dental checkups are not included.

Certificate

Participants who successfully complete all scheduled parts will be awarded a Certificate of completion of training.

Application process

Closing date for application is December 15, 2021. (Ignore the date in the application form). Application shall be made electronically, via link that have been sent out. The application should include a recent photograph and all required information and documents. An outline of the dilemma must be described in the application and include the following at a minimum:

  • Title of the dilemma
  • Background and focal problem
  • Goal

The application page contains details of what to include with your application. After an initial selection, a few chosen candidates will be invited for the interview, after which the final round of selection will take place.

ICLD operates anti-discrimination policy and all training courses are open to anyone despite the physical ability. If you have some physical disability, please let us know so we can solve all the practical issues that may arise.

The activities in the programme will be carried out on-site or digitally. If the situation occurs that we are forced to postpone workshops due to unforeseen situations, we (at the ICLD) will suggest new dates when the majority of participants can participate. If no dates are possible, ICLD will consider carrying out the workshop digitally.

Projektområde
Inclusive leadership and governance
Tema
Human Rights

Programme objectives

Inclusive Local Governance

The main objective of this training programme is that participants develop new or improved practices and/or policies for inclusive public participation in their local governments.

The programme welcomes applications from teams from the eight local governments in southern Africa within Human Rights network consisting of at a minimum: one elected politician; one local government official and one representative of a civil society organization.

Governance, in general, is made up of the processes both political and institutional through which decisions are implemented. Governance is most effective when these processes are inclusive, participatory, accountable, transparent, efficient and respect the rule of law.

Inclusive governance is particularly important at local level, where governments interact with citizens and communities. Local government officials and politicians on the local or regional level as well as civil society organisations are increasingly identified as key players in development and democratization. The civil society organisations can be grass root organisations such as youth groups, resident associations, urban poor, workers associations or other community-based organisations. This creates a unique opportunity for participatory practices and the co-creation of politics between citizens and local political leaders.

Long Term Objectives:
› Local governments in the programme are including citizens to a high degree in local decision-making processes.
› Citizens are integral partners in making, executing and evaluating policy on (insert issue).
› Human rights and Agenda 2030 are integrated in formal guidelines, routines and activities.

Intermediate Objectives:

  • Participating public officials and civil society are knowledgeable and aware of rights-based approach and Agenda 2030
  • Participants are able to identify and highlight dilemmas and possible conflicts in the context for fulfilment of various rights and goals
  • Appropriate routines are developed and put in place so that results are monitored and communicated on a regular basis
  • Participants have developed skills and capacities to impact their organizations towards a more participatory democracy
  • Participants are able to reflect on problem complexity (from a rightsbased perspective) and to work cross-silo, cross-sector, and with civil society and citizens to address complex HR problems
  • Participants have capacity to collect, process, analyze, and learn from varied forms of information regarding human rights dilemmas.

Contents:

The programme has a strong focus on participatory democracy which strives to create opportunities for all members of a population to make meaningful contributions to decision-making. It enables citizens to have a direct role in decision making that affects them, particularly at the community level, where citizens and officials engage as more equal partners in more inclusive, transparent and accountable processes aimed at ensuring greater citizen participation, particularly among women, underrepresented and marginalised groups.

Areas of expertise included in the Programme to achieve the intermediate objectives:

  • Knowledge on the role of citizen participation in democratic local governance
  • Citizen´s participation methods in accordance with HRBA
  • An increased understanding of HRBA complexity and cpability to identify HR dilemmas as well as complexities and dilemmas within SDGs
  • Learning about human right problems and dilemmas (and how local governments perceive, define and address these problems). This involves challenging participants assumptions, supporting them to develop new hypotheses and ideas, and gathering how to gather evidence to guide thinking and action.
  • Training in leadership, strategic planning and communication
  • Exposure to different political landscapes and different leadership styles
  • Study-visits in a Swedish municipality or region
  • Support in disseminating key results to other local governments, nationally and internationally
  • Help the participants to fully utilize the power and influence of their position in their local community
  • Strengthen the participants as a role models to encourage political participation among underrepresented and marginalized groups
  • Give the participants access to relevant networks that fit their work positions.

How?

  • Through a series of trainings, study visits, lectures and workshops
  • By Identifying dilemmas and finding solutions to issues faced by local government officials
  • Through peer to peer knowledge exchange both through North-South and South-South exchange and access to the Partnerships for Human Rights network within the Municipal partnership programme  
  • For those participants who are active in an ICLD Municipal partnership during the time of their training: through additional support in the implementation of the partnership’s democracy development project with a focus on a Human Rights issue
  • Through sharing of professional obstacles and successes in an inclusive environment
  • By having national mentors and experts connected to participating team
  • By sharing and analysing best participatory democracy practices from around the world
  • By offering strategic support and coaching from ICLD staff and their mentors

Dilemmas

The participants will use the ongoing Municipal Partnership projects as learning cases to develop new or improve already existing local policies for inclusive participation. The programme will guide participants in developing these policies through a series of trainings on theory and methods of inclusive public participation including the use of dilemmas that illustrate how equity, participation, transparency and accountability interplay in participatory processes. The participants will work on a change dilemmas together during the training and implement a strategy to make the municipality equitable, participatory, transparent and accountable.

Projektområde
Inclusive leadership and governance
Tema
Child rights and youth participationHuman Rights

Inclusive Local Governance

The training focuses on improving practices for inclusive public participation. The participants will work on dilemmas and implement a strategy to make their municipalities equitable, participatory, transparent and accountable. By strengthening the capacity of selected teams and by strengthening the networks available to them, the training will result in new or improved practices and/or policies for inclusive public participation in the local governments.

The following countries are eligible for the programme: Botswana, South Africa, Zambia.

The programme period: 2022-2024

Participants should come from one of the eight municipalities within Human Rights network and form a team consisting of at least one elected politician in local or regional assemblies, at least one representative of a grassroot organization.


Admission requirements

Invited countries

Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia.

Target group

The programme is aimed at governmental officials from local governments. Applicants must be nominated by their local government (municipality/county) and it must be clear in the application that the organisation supports the proposed change process with which the participants of the training intend to work during the training if accepted.

Local governments must apply in teams of three (3). Each team must include the following functions:

  1. Manager (from a management group within the local government, or similar),
  2. Gender equality strategist/coordinator, and
  3. Economist, development strategist, or other function of importance to the change process.

Functions 2 and 3 are referred to as governmental officials. The application should clearly identify which member of the team holds each of these roles. Ensure diversity in the team regarding ethnicity, age, gender and/or ability.

Elected Politician

Participating local governments will be asked during the training programme to invite an elected politician to participate in parts of the training, preferably a mayor or a member of the local government’s executive committee, at two occasions.

Language requirements

The training programme will be organised and conducted in English. Proficiency in English shall be indicated in the Application form.

Health requirements

Considering the training programme consists of international travels and work away from home in a new environment, good health and ability to work without health restrictions is required. It is therefore recommended that candidates undergo a medical examination before filling in the Medical Statement in the Application form.

Other requirements

Nominations are assessed on individual and organisational merits. 24 participants will be selected to the programme taking into account that the participants bring diversity to the group through their various backgrounds and professional qualifications.

Costs

All training costs pertaining to lectures, literature, documentation, study tours and certain social activities as well as accommodation and food will also be covered by the organiser. All international travel costs related to the programme will be covered by the programme organiser. Costs for personal expenses are not included and are the responsibility of the participant or his/her organisation.

VISA

Participants are responsible for obtaining all relevant visas during all scheduled parts of the programme. The costs for obtaining visas are to be borne by the participant.

Insurance

All participants are covered under a group insurance while on scheduled parts of the programme. Medical and dental checkups are not included.

Certificate

Participants who successfully complete all scheduled parts will be awarded a Certificate of completion of training.

Application process

Application shall be made electronically, via link here below and include a recent photograph and all required information and documents. An outline of the Change Process aiming at developing gender equality in your municipality or district and to contribute to equitable and inclusive lives for all citizens.
The Change Process must be described in the application and you will be asked to describe:

  • The challenge your team wish to address
  • How the institutional strategic focus is affected by the problem
  • Which policy and practice gaps the change process will address

The application page contains details of what to include with your application. After an initial selection, a few chosen candidates will be invited for the interview, after which the final round of selection will take place.

ICLD operates anti-discrimination policy and all training courses are open to anyone despite the physical ability. If you have some physical disability, please let us know so we can solve all the practical issues that may arise.

The activities in the programme will be carried out on-site or digitally. If the situation occurs that we are forced to postpone workshops due to unforeseen situations, ICLD will suggest new dates when the majority of participants can participate. If no dates are possible, ICLD will consider carrying out the workshop digitally.