Samarbetsland: Tanzania

Region Gotland and Kibaha Town Council

Project: Together against Gender Based Violence

The project focuses on tackling gender-based violence (GBV) in Kibaha and Region Gotland with a specific focus on societal cooperation to address this urgent concern. It aims to enhance knowledge and implementation of national strategies, identifying gaps in gender desks and administrative levels at the village level in Kibaha. Key steps include developing a GBV training manual and educating residents on reporting incidents and accessing support.


The recent data from Tanzania highlights concerning rates of violence against girls and women, with nearly 30% of girls experiencing sexual violence before the age of 18. The National Five-Year Development Plan of Tanzania aims to combat gender-based violence (GBV) and violence against children (VAC) across 184 councils, including Kibaha Town Council (KTC). In KTC, data from 2020/21 to 2022/23 reveals a significant increase in GBV cases, including physical violence, psychological abuse, sexual assaults, and child abandonment. Instances of psychological abuse rose from 270 (2020) to 460 (2022), while reported sexual and gender-based violence cases increased from 92 (2020) to 300 (2022). Child abandonment cases also surged from 165 (2020) to 218 (2022). These alarming statistics signify a grave violation of human and child rights as outlined in international covenants.

In response, KTC and the Kibaha Education Centre (KEC) propose an awareness campaign titled “An Awareness Campaign to fight Gender Based Violence across Kibaha Town Council.” The initiative aims to address and mitigate the escalating GBV issues within Kibaha, aligning with national efforts outlined in Tanzania’s development plan.

Projektområde
Inclusive leadership and governance
Globala mål
5 - Jämställdhet
Svensk partner
Region Gotland
Internationell partner
Kibaha Town Council

Voluntary Local Review – Kibaha Town Council, Tanzania

This Voluntary Local Review (VLR) aims at understanding how well the SDGs have been localized and implemented in Kibaha Town Council (KTC), Tanzania. The process employed Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) to represent local voices in a participatory and inclusive manner. The results show that localization of SDGs has helped the government and citizens to foster their cooperation in solving challenges encountered during implementation of SDGs. Citizens of KTC help the council in implementing SDGs through mobilizing local resources, capacity building; local monitoring, and participating in grassroots initiatives on SDG-related activities. Localization of SDGs was constrained by challenges such as financial limitation and lack of meaningful participation from key stakeholders. The review concludes by emphasizing the importance local monitoring of SDGs in promoting the co-production of knowledge through citizen’s participation in decision-making.

Typ av publikation
Working Papers
Projektområde
Inclusive leadership and governance
Globala mål
10 - Minskad ojämlikhet11 - Hållbara städer och samhällen16 - Fredliga och inkluderande samhällen17 - Genomförande och globalt partnerskap5 - Jämställdhet
Tema
Participatory democracy, citizen dialogues and budgeting
Internationell partner
Kibaha Town Council
Etiketter
Agenda2023, CBPR, LocalisingSDGs, VLR,

Voluntary Local Review – Emboreet village, Manyara, Tanzania

The United Nations Agenda 2030 contains 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) with 169 targets to address global social, environmental, and economic challenges by 2030, of which many must be implemented at the local level. Voluntary Local Reviews (VLR) have gained prominence as a means for local and regional governments to assess SDG progress and remaining challenges. Citizen and community engagement in SDG implementation have been recognized as instrumental in achieving the goals and targets. This report presents the findings of a Voluntary Local Review conducted in Emboreet village, Tanzania. The objective was to assess the localization of Agenda 2030, explore the involvement of citizens and other social actors in SDG implementation, and understand their perceptions of the efforts made in achieving the SDGs. The research employed a Community Participatory Action Research methodology to ensure active community participation and collaboration. It reviews thirteen SDGs as a combination of those adapted by the Emboreet village from the Tanzania Vision 2025 and priorities of community stakeholders.

Typ av publikation
Working Papers
Projektområde
Inclusive leadership and governance
Globala mål
1 - Ingen fattigdom10 - Minskad ojämlikhet11 - Hållbara städer och samhällen13 - Bekämpa klimatförändringarna16 - Fredliga och inkluderande samhällen17 - Genomförande och globalt partnerskap2 - Ingen hunger3 - God hälsa och välbefinnande4 - God utbildning för alla5 - Jämställdhet6 - Rent vatten och sanitet för alla7 - Hållbar energi för alla9 - Hållbar industri, innovationer och infrastruktur
Tema
Participatory democracy, citizen dialogues and budgeting
Internationell partner
Emboreet, Simanjiro
Etiketter
Agenda2030, Voluntary Local Review,

Postdevelopment Assistance Made Possible? A qualitative analysis of the ICLD’s International Training Programmes in Tanzania from the local stakeholders’ perspective

Development is a contentious concept, praised by some for enabling progress and criticised by others for perpetuating global power imbalances. Development assistance tends to strengthen the donor-recipient dependency, which, according to critics, primarily serves the interests of the Global North while neglecting the needs of the Global South. Mainstream market-driven strategies have exacerbated inequalities in developing countries provoking the need for exploration of alternative solutions, such as those proposed by postdevelopment.

This thesis examines the possibility of integration of postdevelopment into current development programmes. It is based on the case of the International Training Programmes (ITPs) conducted in Tanzania by the Swedish International Centre for Local Democracy (ICLD) and it aims to assess if the ITP participants’ perspectives, needs, and values were considered when these programmes were conducted. By incorporating the voices of the development assistance recipients, the author endeavours to acknowledge their ownership over the development processes.

The literature review in this thesis presents the deficiencies of development practice and is followed by the presentation of the postdevelopment theory, its key aspects, critique, and prescriptions as well as possible postdevelopment scenarios. The data was gathered using qualitative semi-structured interviews with a sample of 14 ITP participants and analysed by applying the thematic analysis approach. Complementary methods, that is observations and semi-structured interviews with the ITP organisers, were used to triangulate the data. In the methodology chapter, the author also reflects on his positionality and ethical aspects.

The results show multiple aspects of development assistance from the perspective of the ITP participants and are divided into two sections, that is the applicability of the programmes and power relations. Their presentation is followed by a discussion in which the author connects the results to the theory. The findings served to present the experiences of the Tanzanians involved in the ITPs and how they relate to postdevelopment. It allowed the author to conclude whether development assistance could be compatible with the postdevelopment agenda

Typ av publikation
Master Thesis
Projektområde
Inclusive leadership and governance
Globala mål
17 - Genomförande och globalt partnerskap
Etiketter
fieldwork grant, postdevelopment, tanzania,

Widows, land rights and women’s empowerment: “Who will own the kitchen?” – Findings from the Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania

Women around the world are constantly being denied their land rights due to discriminatory practices. Widowed women are particularly at risk. This prevents advancing women’s empowerment and women’s equal opportunities for participation and leadership at all levels of decision making processes. Through a qualitative case study within the Chagga community in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, this thesis’ aim is to understand how widows perceive their land rights, what challenges and opportunities they face in accessing their land rights, and why, and to what extent widows participate in local government decision-making processes in land management.

The findings reveal the nuanced ways in which widows perceive their right to land, transcending mere ownership to a more holistic view that encompasses cultural, social, and economic dimensions. Delving into the challenges and opportunities of accessing land rights, the study showed that while the widows exhibited remarkable negotiation skills and resilience, obstacles such as limited knowledge of land laws and familial responsibilities were obvious. Chagga widows’ participation in local government decision-making processes in land management reveals a complex landscape shaped by limited knowledge of land laws, challenges in attending local government meetings, and varying degrees of women’s representation in local leadership positions.

Typ av publikation
Master Thesis
Projektområde
Inclusive leadership and governance
Globala mål
5 - Jämställdhet
Tema
Gender Equality
Etiketter
land rights, local participation, tanzania, Women's Empowerment,

Women’s political representation and effective participation in Ngara, Tanzania

This action research project aimed at understanding the factors obstructing and enabling participation of women in the Ward Councils of Ngara, and design a policy intervention. The study employed qualitative methods including interviews, focus group discussions, and document reviews. Following empowerment theory, it reveals socio-economic, socio-cultural, and institutional factors hindering women’s participation, such as financial difficulties, lack of political knowledge, social norms and stereotypes. It also identifies individual, community, and institutional factors that positively influence women’s access to ward council positions, such as grassroots leadership experience, support from other women, mindset changes, and reduced gender stereotypes. The study emphasized the importance of quotas in enhancing women’s representation but reviews the factors obstructing equal influence. Overcoming these challenges is concluded as crucial for women to have an equal voice, access resources, and shape development plans, policies, and strategies. It highlights the need for women’s empowerment, resource sharing, and civil society support, and recommends additional leadership positions for women, coalition building, addressing gender-based violence, and promoting gender equality in nominations. The study concludes with targeted recommendations for local government, political parties, civil society and community members to promote gender equality and effective women’s participation in decision-making bodies.

This research is the result of an “impact research grant” – an innovative approach to research that starts from the policy end. Following the request from Ngara District Council in a Local Democracy Lab to investigate the barriers to women’s political participation in its wards, this project set out to study obstacles and enablers in a manner that involved the community to directly address them.

Typ av publikation
Research Reports
Projektområde
Inclusive leadership and governance
Globala mål
5 - Jämställdhet
Tema
Gender Equality
Etiketter
Forskning, Gender, Gender equality, research, tanzania,

TRANS-Lighthouses

Regional Focus: Europe

Time: May 2023-2026

ICLD is part of a consortium of European organizations to undertake a large-scale research project on inclusive nature-based solutions (NBS).

Abstract:

TRANS-lighthouses aims to gather evidence on material and immaterial results of NBS in order to rethink and reframe the main elements that compose the complexity of creating social and ecologically just NBS. More than a driving process, the collaborative work on planning and making NBS functional might stimulate a more concerted response towards environmental and climate crises, increasing the commitment of different stakeholders and upscaling their own spheres of action. TRANS-lighthouses adopts a nonlinear perspective and opens up space for the adoption of a fluid and organic position that is able to integrate the diversity of subjects, institutions, knowledge(s), practices and values. TRANS-lighthouses’ ambition is to become a European reference on sociopolitical challenges for supporting NBS projects and solutions. The socio-politics dimension will be part of the public agenda for NBS towards SYSTEMIC CHANGE. This ambition will be achieved by assessing the benefits and limitations of NBS co-creation that have already been implemented and designed, tested and disseminated economically and socially fairer guidelines for NBS implementation. For this purpose, the project will conduct a thorough assessment, grounded on a transdisciplinary approach and critical analysis. Constituting a well-oiled network of citizens, local governments, scientific institutions and civil society-based partners which acts across borders, disciplines and sectors, TRANS-lighthouses will lead research on activities aiming to implement socioeconomic and political changes capable of enabling pathways for a socially and ecologically just implementation of NBS. TRANS-lighthouses integrates a network of NBS lighthouses for urban, rural, coastal and forested areas in 10 EU countries and 6 non-EU.

NBS Lighthouses are:
● local/regional arrangements/platforms bringing together multiple actors;
● to enhance the NBS contributions to social and economic targets;
● to test new governance and co-creation models;
● to adequate NBS responses to different socio-political contexts;
● small-scale but big-picture projects than can be upscaled over time.

Expected output: designing economically and socially fairer guidelines for NBS implementation.

TRANS-Lighthouses is an acronym:
T – Transformative
R – Reflexive
A – Activist
N – Networked
S – Solutions
Lighthouses – shedding light on just and equitable practices to guide the way forwards

ICLD’s role in primarily in the governance and co-creation dimension, aiming to unveil and understand the governance and co-creation context, including under-researched actors, sectors and landscapes, agendas, rules and interactions; to design innovative governance models, towards community-based decisions; and to co-monitor and co-evaluate. Our deliverables will include policy briefs, learning cases and animated videos.

Partners

  1. Centre for Social Studies (CES) Portugal
  2. Roskilde University (RUC) Denmark
  3. Technical University of Munich (TUM) Germany
  4. The Cyprus Institute (CyI) Cyprus
  5. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) France
  6. Nantes Université (NU) (Affiliated to CNRS) France
  7. Université Gustave Eiffel (uni. Eiffel) (Affiliated to CNRS) France
  8. University of Louvain (UCLouvain) Belgium
  9. Sapienza, Università di Roma (Sapienza) Italy
  10. University of Extremadura (UEx) Spain
  11. Universidade dos Açores (UAc) Portugal
  12. ATHENA Research Centre (ARC) Greece
  13. Economias BioRegionales (EBR) Spain
  14. Município de Estarreja (CME) Portugal
  15. Município de Barcelos (CMB) Portugal
  16. Ville de Bruxelles – Stad Brussel (Brussels) Belgium
  17. Swedish International Centre for Local Democracy (ICLD) Sweden
  18. Associazione Jangada Onlus (Jangada) Italy
  19. Cooperativa de Incubação de Iniciativas de Economia Solidária (Kairós) Portugal

Associated partners

  1. Universidad de Chile Chile
  2. Universidad de Buenos Aires Argentina
  3. Universidade de Brasília Brazil
  4. Prefeitura de São Paulo Brazil
  5. Tata Institute of social sciences India
  6. University of Illinois USA
  7. University of Dar es Salaam Tanzania
  8. Polycom Development Project, Kenya
  9. Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, Brazil

This is an EU-funded project under call HORIZON-CL6-2022-COMMUNITIES-01 (Resilient, inclusive, healthy and green rural, coastal and urban communities)

Projektområde
Environment/Climate changeInclusive leadership and governance
Globala mål
11 - Hållbara städer och samhällen13 - Bekämpa klimatförändringarna
Tema
Participatory democracy, citizen dialogues and budgeting

Voluntary Local Reviews with community-based participatory research

Regional focus: Tanzania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Global

Time: February – December 2023

Summary: ICLD is financing three small-scale studies to conduct Voluntary Local Reviews with participatory methods, and one comparative study to draw conclusions on the use of CBPR in reporting on the SDGs.

The global movement of Voluntary Local Reviews (VLRs) is growing fast. Cities, local and regional governments worldwide are using VLRs to track and report on progress toward the SDGs. Undertaking a VLR can benefit a local government by:

  • evaluating and monitoring progress
  • demonstrating political commitment
  • enabling civic participation
  • identifying priority areas for local sustainable action.

However, many VLRs do not take citizens’ thoughts and perspectives into account, thereby missing potentially important conclusions. At the same time, development researchers hold that participatory research methods have the greatest chance of creating positive change for marginalized groups. ICLD therefore identified Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) as an opportunity to develop deeper VLRs through co-creation between researchers, citizens and municipalities. This aims to yield useful insights for the municipality in question while strengthening vulnerable communities as well as contribute to the collective understanding of how SDG follow-up can be improved. The latter is analyzed on an aggregated level in a comparative study, in order to enhance scientific development and evaluate the initiative.

The research project should answer to the following questions:

  • How has the selected local government advanced the localization of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development? What data is available? What have been key priorities?
  • How are citizens and other social actors perceiving the implementation of the SDGs and how are they involved?
  • What can we learn about participatory approaches in reporting on the SDGs? Does it enhance the potential for impact of the VLR?

Project components

Kibaha Town Council, Tanzania

Researcher: Sophia Mgoba, Assistant Lecturer, Institute of Development Studies, University of Dar es Salaam

The study in Kibaha Town Council will bring new knowledge on the implementation of the SDGs at the local level from the perspective of urban East Africa by involve citizen science activity to facilitate regular exchange among beneficiaries of SDG related interventions and create local expertise for ongoing monitoring of the goals: citizen observatories. Kibaha’s VLR fócuses on SDGs 5, 10, 11, 16 and 17.

Kibaha Town Council is in a municipal partnership with Region Gotland and part of the Sustainable Futures Network.

Emboreet village, Tanzania

Researcher: Asia Majid, Assistant Lecturer, Institute of Development Studies, University of Dar es Salaam

In the Maasai village of Emboreet, participatory video mixed with focus groups, interviews and survey data will contribute to outlining the progress and ignite further action on goals 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 13, 16 and 17. The participatory approach will provide room for dialogue between different groups of stakeholders by exploring their experiences, practices, and values and will enable the Emboreet community members to reflect on future opportunities.

Emboreet is in a municipal partnership with Strängnäs and part of the Sustainable Futures Network. The two Tanzanian cases are coordinated through ICLD’s MoU with University of Dar es Salaam and undertaken in close coordination with UN Habitat, UCLG and ALAT to ensure uptake of the local perspective in Tanzania’s national SDG reporting.

Bijeljina, Bosnia & Herzegovina

Researchers: Denisa Saraljic, Selma Zulic and Anida Sokol, SCRIPTA

The city of Bijeljina is the first local government in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) that undertook a systematic approach in the localization of the Agenda 2030 and SDGs, and this study contributes to their first report on the progress to that end.

The key objective of this research is to enable and empower community members to have their voice heard on the progress in achieving SDG in the City of Bijeljina, and contribute to a deeper understanding of how local communities and citizens benefit directly from the initiatives seeking to implement measures towards the achievement of SDGs. Using an immersive process employing community mapping and storytelling, it will explore SDG 5, 10 and 17.

Comparative research

Researcher: Andrea Ciambra, University of A Coruña, Spain

A comparative study aggregates lessons learned from these three participatory VLRS to provide answer to questions such as:

  • Does participatory monitoring give new types of insights on SDG fulfilment?
  • Can participatory VLRs bring about positive transformation where they are conducted?
  • How can we make VLR processes better and more inclusive?
Projektområde
Inclusive leadership and governance

Strängnäs – Emboreet, Tanzania

Project: Social sustainability

Strängnäs and Emboreet previously had a partnership between the years 2012-2016. In their new project, they intend to increase both Emboreet’s and Strängnäs’s ability to take young people’s ideas into account and thereby increase the level of democratic dialogues with adults in the village and higher decision-making organs to formulate strategies and policies within the thematic topic of the environment and climate change.

Projektområde
EducationEnvironment/Climate changeInclusive leadership and governance
Globala mål
12 - Hållbar konsumtion och produktion13 - Bekämpa klimatförändringarna4 - God utbildning för alla
Tema
Child rights and youth participationParticipatory democracy, citizen dialogues and budgeting
Svensk partner
Strängnäs kommun
Internationell partner
Emboreet, Simanjiro

Child-Focused Cities Analytical Framework

This research project, aiming to develop an analytical tool to address the Sustainable Development Goals from a child rights perspective, is divided into multiple steps. Phase two, conducted in 2023-2024 is described first while phase 1, which served to build the conceptual groundwork for the analytical framework, is described after.

Phase 2 – Child-Focused Cities [CFC] for the Sustainable Futures Network

Regional focus: Eastern Africa / Southern Africa / Europe / Latin America The Sustainable Futures Network

Time: July 2023 – July 2024

Abstract:

Child-Focused Cities (CFC) brings together a group of engaged researchers epistemologically curious about the inclusion of children and youth in local democracy. The group revolves around questions of why, how, where, and under what circumstances children and young people are recognised as political subjects and crucial role-players in shaping sustainable futures.

The project will facilitate cross-sectoral exchange between local decision-makers, researchers, and practitioners by embracing the format of Research Circles. Through local partnerships with reputable professional organizations specializing in working with children and young individuals, the research will enable creative interpretation of the CFC initial concept, thus illuminating multiple geographical and cultural registers around childhood, and providing the indispensable link between local politics and research. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop a toolbox as a collection of practical instruments and protocols that will be essential for advancing the CFC agenda within the Sustainable Futures Network.

Research team

  1. Jua Cilliers [Australia], School of Built Environment, University of Technology Sydney
  2. Paula Barros [Brazil], Escola de Arquitetura Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
  3. Lynne Cairns [Scotland], Centre for Research into Violence and Abuse (CRiVA), University of Durham
  4. Caroline Brown [Scotland],The Urban Institute, School of Energy, Geosciences, Infrastructure and Society, Heriot-Watt University
  5. Predrag Milic [Serbia/Austria], Interdisciplinary Centre for Urban Culture and Public Space, TU Wien / Faculty of Architecture and Planning Austria
  6. Rongedzayi Fambasayi [South Africa], Play Africa Group NPC, Children’s Museum / Law and Development Research, North-West University
  7. Rejoice Katsidzira, [Zimbabwe] Center for Human Rights, University of Pretoria

Phase 1 – Let’s get together and make change: Towards The Child-Focused Cities Analytical Framework

Regional focus: East Africa, global

Time: October-December 2022

This study is conducted with an Impact Research Grant – stipends for projects designed to facilitate solutions to a local government’s expressed needs. The projects build on Local Democracy Labs, where local governments discuss a current issue with expert researchers.

Summary

This research ultimately aims to create a new toolkit –a relational object – that reframes the current Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) from children’s perspectives in their respective everyday-life environments. Such a tool aims at the paradigmatic shift of the child-friendly city approaches by claiming that “friendly is not enough”! Conceptualised as the Child-Focused City Analytical Framework, the toolkit should offer guidance for analysis andaction to local governments, municipalities, and professionals within and beyond the ICLD network. In short, this project will enable a team of international scholars to revisit, contextualise, and stress-test the concept of the CFCAF, developed during the LDA2022. In this “stage zero” phase, contextualising the CFCAF to the needs of partnering local governments and professionals serves to stress-test the toolkit, jointly draw conclusions and prepare for its further development.

With a participatory approach and co-creation of results, the project encounters municipalities in their respective realities and engage in a constructive dialogue around child and youth inclusion. As a group of international scholars, the researchers will not do “research”, but “praxis: reflection and action upon the world in order to transform it” (Freire 2005: 51).

Municipal partners for this project are Livingstone and Victoria Falls, Zambia, while multiple municipalities participate as observers.

Projektområde
Inclusive leadership and governance
Globala mål
11 - Hållbara städer och samhällen17 - Genomförande och globalt partnerskap
Tema
Child rights and youth participationHuman RightsParticipatory democracy, citizen dialogues and budgeting